Plusieurs membres de l’équipe Archéologies Environnementales (UMR 7041) présentent des communications au 20e congrès annuel de l’European Association of Archaeologists.
Philippe FAJON (MCC – UMR 7041, France) et Bogdan SANDRIC (INP – Ministerul Culturii, Romania) participeront au session « Iron age landscape in a comparative perspective », en présentant la communication :
« Gaulish and Dacian settlements organised the landscape in the same way at both extremities of Europe – An archeogeographical approach »
During the late Iron age, parcelling the landscape is a fact commonly admitted in a lot of countries. At both extremities of the next Roman empire, the same phenomena is viewable. Oppida organised the territory, not only as points surronded by settlements but also as points of connection from which the lineaments drawn the landscape organisation. With the two exemples of Upper-Normandy (France) with the rules of gaulish settlements of LaTene D, and Olt county (Romania) with dacian fortresses, and using the technics of the archeogeography, we shall try to show how the sites organised the road net and the fields limits. We’ll demonstrate that the way of human organisation of the landscape is ready to grow up in a new dimension. Time is ready for the roman civilization to come and impose itself by its trade and territory structuration, as an adaptation of that was before. And this structuration, in France as in Romania, remained the driving force behind the development of the space until the middle of twentieth century.
Jean-Yves Dufour, présente, dans le cadre du symposiun « Archaeological and Ethnoarchaeological Approaches to the Study of Post-medieval Rural Settlements » (organisé par Catriona Mackie, Francesco Carrer et Anna Maria Stagno) une communcation intitulée :
« The use of the modern treatises of agriculture for the interpretation of archaeological vestiges: the case of the dairies »
The study of traditional farms from the Île-de-France, suggests that 70-80% of farm buildings were intended to shelter and manage the harvest, equipment, and tools (e.g. machines, carts), and to stable livestock. The uses varied from one cultural period to another and from one region to another, but we can nevertheless consider that most of the excavated buildings in rural or village contexts were not dwellings, but indeed buildings for animals, crops or tools. To recognize such buildings (e.g. stables, pigsties) among archaeological remains, it is necessary for us to understand what such buildings look like while still in use.
For more than ten years, we have taken this approach in the Paris Region, by observing and recording such buildings (farms and other structures) before demolition, and by comparing them with information contained within old books on agriculture, including treatises describing the principles of construction and the working of these agricultural buildings. From this agronomic literature, which is relatively rich from the 16th century onwards, we were able to make an “archaeological reading”, by extracting lines, pages or chapters containing important information for archaeological interpretation. This “theory” of agricultural construction, based on contemporary observation and historical research, enables us to recognize and interpret almost fifty farming activities among our archaeological sites. Together with studies of fauna, flora and soil, it allows us to specify the function of the buildings, thus enabling us to examine the rural economy of a site.
The dairy is the place where the herder stores the milk to preserve it or to transform it into butter or cheese. This activity, very lucrative in a pastoral economy, was regarded as a pleasant part of the rural economy by many former agronomists. Most farms were thus equipped with a dairy. To learn how to recognize the vestiges of a dairy on an archaeological site, we first of all tried to learn what a traditional dairy looks like. The “archaeological reading” of old works of agronomy gives us the keys to recognize dairying activity areas. We then compare this “book” knowledge with three modern sites where the dairy can be easily identified: the castle and the mill of Roissy-in-France (France).
Finalement, Isabelle Catteddu présente la communication « Châteaugiron (Brittany-France), Archaeology and Environment of land over the long term and the history of the territory’s development ».
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